THUS HAVE I HEARD. On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Rajagaha on Mount Vulture Peak. Then Prince Abhaya approached the Blessed One, paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:

“Venerable sir, Pūraṇa Kassapa says: ‘There is no cause or condition for lack of knowledge and vision; lack of knowledge and vision is without cause or condition. There is no cause or condition for knowledge and vision; knowledge and vision are without cause or condition.’ What does the Blessed One say about this?”

“There is, prince, a cause and condition for lack of knowledge and vision; lack of knowledge and vision is with cause and condition. There is a cause and condition for knowledge and vision; knowledge and vision are with cause and condition.”

i. The cause for lack of knowledge and vision

“But, venerable sir, what is the cause and condition for lack of knowledge and vision? How is it that lack of knowledge and vision is with cause and condition?”

“On an occasion, prince, when one dwells with a mind obsessed by sensual lust, overwhelmed by sensual lust, and one neither knows nor sees as it really is the escape from arisen sensual lust: this is a cause and condition for lack of knowledge and vision; it is in this way that lack of knowledge and vision is with cause and condition.

“Again, prince, on an occasion when one dwells with a mind obsessed by ill will … obsessed by sloth and torpor … obsessed by restlessness and remorse … obsessed by doubt, overwhelmed by doubt, and one neither knows nor sees as it really is the escape from arisen doubt: this too is a cause and condition for lack of knowledge and vision; it is in this way too that lack of knowledge and vision is with cause and condition.”

“What is this Dhamma exposition called, venerable sir?”

“These are called the hindrances, prince.”

“Surely they are hindrances, Blessed One! Surely they are hindrances, Fortunate One! One overcome by even a single hindrance would not know and see things as they really are, not to speak of one overcome by the five hindrances.

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ii. The cause of knowledge and vision

“But, venerable sir, what is the cause and condition for knowledge and vision? How is it that knowledge and vision are with cause and condition?”

“Here, prince, a bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of mindfulness, which is based upon seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, maturing in release. With a mind that has developed the enlightenment factor of mindfulness he knows and sees things as they really are. This is a cause for knowledge and vision; it is in this way that knowledge and vision are with cause and condition….

“Again, prince, a bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of equanimity, which is based upon seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, maturing in release. With a mind that has developed the enlightenment factor of equanimity he knows and sees things as they really are. This too is a cause for knowledge and vision; it is in this way that knowledge and vision are with cause and condition.”

“What is this Dhamma exposition called, venerable sir?”

“These are called the factors of enlightenment, prince.”

“Surely they are factors of enlightenment, Blessed One! Surely they are factors of enlightenment, Fortunate One! One who possesses even a single factor of enlightenment would know and see things as they really are, not to speak of one who possesses the seven factors of enlightenment. The bodily fatigue and the mental fatigue that I experienced from climbing Mount Vulture Peak have subsided. I have made the breakthrough to the Dhamma.”

Source: https://suttacentral.net/sn46.56 Abhaya Sutta SN 46.56  SN v 126

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