The Four Types of Individuals Are Found Existing in the World

Developing Mindfulness of Breathing

“Monks, these four types of individuals are found existing in the world. Which four? The one who practices for his own benefit but not for that of others. The one who practices for the benefit of others but not for his own. The one who practices neither for his own benefit nor for that of others. The one who practices for his own benefit and for that of others.

“And how is one an individual who practices for his own benefit but not for that of others? There is the case where a certain individual himself abstains from the taking of life but doesn’t encourage others in undertaking abstinence from the taking of life. He himself abstains from stealing but doesn’t encourage others in undertaking abstinence from stealing. He himself abstains from sexual misconduct but doesn’t encourage others in undertaking abstinence from sexual misconduct. He himself abstains from lying but doesn’t encourage others in undertaking abstinence from lying. He himself abstains from intoxicants that cause heedlessness but doesn’t encourage others in undertaking abstinence from intoxicants that cause heedlessness. Such is the individual who practices for his own benefit but not for that of others.

“And how is one an individual who practices for the benefit of others but not for his own? There is the case where a certain individual himself doesn’t abstain from the taking of life but encourages others in undertaking abstinence from the taking of life. He himself doesn’t abstain from stealing but encourages others in undertaking abstinence from stealing. He himself doesn’t abstain from sexual misconduct but encourages others in undertaking abstinence from sexual misconduct. He himself doesn’t abstain from lying but encourages others in undertaking abstinence from lying. He himself doesn’t abstain from intoxicants that cause heedlessness but encourages others in undertaking abstinence from intoxicants that cause heedlessness. Such is the individual who practices for the benefit of others but not for his own.

“And how is one an individual who practices neither for his own benefit nor for that of others? There is the case where a certain individual himself doesn’t abstain from the taking of life and doesn’t encourage others in undertaking abstinence from the taking of life. He himself doesn’t abstain from stealing and doesn’t encourage others in undertaking abstinence from stealing. He himself doesn’t abstain from sexual misconduct and doesn’t encourage others in undertaking abstinence from sexual misconduct. He himself doesn’t abstain from lying and doesn’t encourage others in undertaking abstinence from lying. He himself doesn’t abstain from intoxicants that cause heedlessness and doesn’t encourage others in undertaking abstinence from intoxicants that cause heedlessness. Such is the individual who practices neither for his own benefit nor for that of others.

“And how is one an individual who practices for his own benefit and for that of others? There is the case where a certain individual himself abstains from the taking of life and encourages others in undertaking abstinence from the taking of life. He himself abstains from stealing and encourages others in undertaking abstinence from stealing. He himself abstains from sexual misconduct and encourages others in undertaking abstinence from sexual misconduct. He himself abstains from lying and encourages others in undertaking abstinence from lying. He himself abstains from intoxicants that cause heedlessness and encourages others in undertaking abstinence from intoxicants that cause heedlessness. Such is the individual who practices for his own benefit and for that of others.

“These are the four types of individuals found existing in the world.”

Source: https://suttacentral.net/an4.99 Sikkhāpada Sutta AN 4.99  AN ii 98

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